High Blood Pressure

Overview

Blood pressure is the amount of force your blood exerts against the walls of your arteries. Normal blood pressure effectively and harmlessly pushes the blood from your heart to your body’s organs and muscles so they can receive the oxygen and nutrients they need.

Blood pressure is that the quantity of force your blood exerts against the walls of your arteries. Normal force per unit area effectively and harmlessly pushes the blood from your heart to your body’s organs and muscles in order that they will receive the O and nutrients they have.

Blood pressure is variable—it rises and falls throughout the day. When force per unit area stays elevated over time, however, it is called high blood pressure or hypertension.

According to the American Heart Association, 76.4 million Americans have high blood pressure. High blood pressure was a primary contributing cause of death for 326,000 Americans in 2006.

Hypertension can occur in both children and adults, but it is more common in adults, particularly African Americans and the elderly. People with other conditions such as diabetes and kidney disease are likely to become hypertensive. In addition, being overweight, drinking alcohol excessively (defined as more than two drinks a day for men and one drink a day for women) and taking oral contraceptives may increase blood pressure.

About 1/2 Americans with high vital signa} are girls. More men than girls have high blood pressure, until women reach menopause, when their risk becomes greater than men’s. About thirty p.c of girls have high force per unit area.

Blood pressure is often expressed as 2 numbers, one over the other, and is measured in millimeters of mercury (noted as mm Hg). The first range is that the pulsation force per unit area, the pressure used when the heart beats. The second number,diastolic blood pressure, is the pressure that exists in the arteries between heartbeats.

Depending on your activities, your blood pressure may increase or decrease throughout the day. If you are not acutely ill, are over 18 years of age and are not taking antihypertensive drugs, a blood pressure reading of 119 mm Hg or below systolic and/or seventy nine torr or below beat (119/79) is taken into account traditional.

If your systolic blood pressure is 120 to 139 mm Hg systolic and/or your diastolic pressure is 80 to 89 mm Hg, you have prehypertension. This means that you don’t have high blood pressure now but are more likely to develop it in the future, and you have increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other conditions related to hypertension.

A pressure level of 140/90 millimeter of mercury or higher is taken into account high.

You have stage 1 hypertension if your systolic pressure is 140 to 159 and/or diastolic is between 90 and 99. If your systolic pressure is 160 or above and/or your diastolic is 100 or more, you have stage 2 hypertension. Only one of the numbers needs to be above normal for a diagnosis of high blood pressure; that is, you can have isolatedsystolic or diastolic hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is the most common form of high blood pressure in older Americans. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) estimates that 65 percent of people with hypertension over age 60 have ISH.

The cause of approximately 90 percent to 95 percent of all hypertension isn’t known. This type of high blood pressure is termed primary or essential high pressure. Secondary hypertension is somewhat completely different as a result of it represents all of the particular diseases that cause elevated pressure. It is vital to diagnose this kind of high blood pressure as a result of the treatment differs from primary high blood pressure. While there is no cure for primary hypertension, it is easily detected and is usually controllable.

Still, nearly one-third of those who suffer from high blood pressure don’t know they have it, and people can have high blood pressure for years without knowing they have it. That’s why high pressure has been known as “the silent killer.”

Of those with hypertension, only about 30 percent have the problem under control, defined as a level below 140/90 mm Hg. Left untreated, hypertension can result in permanent damage to the small blood vessels of the body, which can damage organs such as the heart, brain and kidneys, leading to heart attacks, stroke and kidney failure. It can also cause acute or chronic circulatory problems.

Elevated blood pressure levels significantly increase your risk for coronary heart disease, including heart attack and stroke. Consistent high blood pressure also increases your risk for congestive heart failure and can lead to other problems such as:

  • Atherosclerosis: Plaque collects on the walls of hypertension-damaged blood vessels, which can eventually lead to blockages that may result in a stroke or heart attack. Although this plaque builds up for many reasons as you age, high blood pressure hastens the process.
  • Eye damage: High pressure in blood vessels can cause tiny hemorrhages in theretina, the light-sensitive membrane in the back of your eye on which images are formed. If this happens, you may lose some of your vision.
  • Heart enlargement or failure:There ar 2 sorts of heart disease. In the 1st, the walls of the heart are weak and thin as a result of being stretched by increasing amounts of pooling blood in the heart. In the second, commonly seen in people with hypertension, the heart muscle enlarges in response to the higher pressure and increased workload. It becomes so big it begins to close off the ventricular chamber, decreasing the amount of blood that can fill the heart. This is called diastolic dysfunction, because the heart muscle can’t relax normally and allow blood to fill the chamber.
  • Kidney harm and failure: high blood pressure causes arteries planning to your kidneys to become constricted, making them less efficient at filtering waste from your body. Each year, high blood pressure causes more than 25,000 new cases of kidney failure in the United States. African Americans are particularly at risk. Early treatment of hypertension can help prevent kidney damage.

You should have your blood pressure checked whenever you see a health care professional. Because pressure is variable, it should be checked on several days before a high blood pressure diagnosis is made. One elevated pressure reading does not essentially mean you’ve got high pressure, but it does warrant repeated measurements and means you have to watch your blood pressure carefully.
Dietary and manner changes might assist you management high pressure. If you’ve got gentle high blood pressure, you may be able to lower your blood pressure by reducing the amount of sodium (salt) in your diet, reducing fat intake, eating a diet high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy (such as the DASH diet) and reducing alcohol consumption. If you’re overweight, losing weight may reduce your blood pressure. Increasing your physical activity, even if you don’t lose weight, can also reduce blood pressure.
For some people, lifestyle changes aren’t enough to lower blood pressure. Luckily, high pressure is with success treated with long medication.
Commonly prescribed drugs include diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), directrenin inhibitors (DRIs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), vasodilators, alpha-beta blockers, central-acting agents and alpha blockers. Because there is no cure for most hypertension cases, treatment generally must be carried out for life to prevent blood pressure from rising again.
Many of these drugs are also available to treat isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) to reduce your risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.

Causes of Hypertension

The ninety p.c to ninety five p.c of high blood pressure cases during which the cause cannot be determined square measure referred to as essential or primary high blood pressure cases. Hypertension may also be a symptom of an identified problem (see below) that generally corrects itself when the cause is corrected. This type of high pressure is named hypertension.

  • Renal artery stenosis (narrowing of the arteries leading to your kidneys)
  • Adrenal gland disease (Cushing’s disease) or adrenal tumors
  • Kidney disease
  • Preeclampsia (hypertension and increased urine protein levels sometimes caused by pregnancy)
  • Thyroid disease

Other factors affecting blood pressure include:

  • Use of birth control pills
  • Psychologic stress
  • Severe pain
  • Drug or alcohol withdrawal
  • Use of amphetamines, cocaine or other stimulants
  • Use of steroids
  • Overuse of nicotine nasal sprays, gum, patches and lozenges designed to help smokers kick the habit
  • Sleep apnea

Your health care skilled ought to monitor your pressure if you’re taking oral contraceptives. Your blood pressure should also be carefully monitored if you’re pregnant, because some women develop preeclampsia-related hypertension during pregnancy. One of the leading causes of maternal death, preeclampsia is hypertension combined with protein in the urine and/or swollen hands and feet. It typically occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy. It can lead to premature and low-birth–weight babies.

Diagnosis

Your health care professional should check your blood pressure at least once every two years, and more often if it’s high. A high pressure diagnosing is sometimes supported a minimum of the typical of 2 or additional readings per visit, taken at two different visits after an initial screening.

The only thanks to properly check your pressure is to live it with a tool referred to as a pressure gauge, commonly called a blood pressure cuff. This is a quick and painless test in which a rubber cuff is wrapped around your upper arm and inflated. As the cuff inflates, it compresses a large artery, stopping the blood’s flow through that artery. When your health care professional releases the air in the cuff, he or she can listen with a stethoscope for the blood to start flowing through your artery again. Your health care skilled will watch the pressure gauge gauge to work out pulse pressure—the pressure once the primary sound of pulsing blood is heard—and the blood pressure, the pressure once the last sound of pulsing blood is heard.

In May 2003, the NHLBI released updated clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, detection and treatment of high blood pressure. These guidelines now cover new blood pressure categories, including a “prehypertension” level, which covers about 25 percent of Americans.

This prehypertension category alerts you to your real risk of high blood pressure. People with prehypertension are likely to develop hypertension over the next few years if they don”t get the condition under control. You don’t need medication therapy, unless you have another condition like diabetes or chronic kidney disease. However, you should make any necessary lifestyle changes, such as losing excess weight, becoming physically active, limiting alcohol consumption and following a heart-healthy eating plan, including cutting back on salt and other forms of sodium, to reduce your blood pressure levels.

Blood pressure above 140 mm Hg systolic and/or 90 mm Hg diastolic is considered hypertensive. There are 2 stages of hypertension. Stage 1 hypertension is systolic blood pressure between 140 to 159 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure 90 to 99 mm Hg. Stage 2 hypertension is blood pressure greater than 160 mm Hg systolic and/or 100 mm Hg diastolic. When systolic and diastolic pressures fall into different categories, your health care professional should select the higher category to classify your blood pressure. For example, 160/80 mm Hg would be considered stage 2 hypertension.

If you are hypertensive and have begun receiving initial medication therapy, you will probably need to return for follow-up and adjustment of medications once a month until your blood pressure goal is reached. More frequent visits may be necessary for those with stage 2 hypertension.

A small range of individuals expertise “white coat high blood pressure,” which is very elevated blood pressure when visiting their health care professional while blood pressure at home is normal. At home, you can check your blood pressure in a setting that’s more comfortable for you to get a more accurate reading.
ome vital sign watching conjointly offers you the chance to live your own vital sign once your health care professional’s workplace isn’t open. Inexpensive devices for home square measurea} watching are obtainable at the most pharmacies. Be positive to own your health care skilled check your home vital sign device after you begin victimisation it to form sure it’s providing correct readings.

Also, do not build any changes in your medication supported home vital sign readings while not 1st consulting your health care skilled. Home blood pressure monitoring is an excellent adjunct to monitoring by your health care professional, but should it not be done in lieu of professional monitoring.

For many older Americans, only the systolic blood pressure is high, a condition known as “isolated systolic hypertension,” or ISH (systolic at or above 140 mm Hg and diastolic under 90 mm Hg). Research finds that diastolic blood pressure rises until about age 55 and then declines, while systolic blood pressure increases steadily with age.

The systolic blood pressure is considered a more important number than the diastolic pressure when it comes to the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, as well as in determining risk for heart disease and stroke.
In addition to taking vital sign readings from each arms, your health care professional may conduct the following during a hypertension exam:

  • A complete medical history. Make sure you tell your doctor about any alternative medicines you’re taking such as herbs, over-the-counter drugs and supplements. The yankee Heart Association notes that some could also be grievous once combined with medicines to treat high vital sign.
  • A physical examination. This includes checking your retinas and abdomen, listening to your lungs and heart, taking your pulse in several areas, including your feet, and looking for swelling in your ankles.
  • A urinalysis. The urine is tested for elevated protein, sugar, white blood cells or other abnormalities.
  • An electrocardiogram. Your health care professional will position a number of small contacts on your arms, legs and chest to connect them to an ECG machine. The results will be analyzed for any abnormalities indicating an enlarged heart or other abnormality.
  • A kidney profile. The blood is tested for abnormalities such as elevated creatinine.
  • A thyroid profile. The blood is tested for abnormalities such as an elevated level of thyroid hormone, and the thyroid gland is physically felt for enlargement.

Risk Factors for Hypertension

Although there are several risk factors for hypertension, family history is the primary one. High blood pressure tends to run in families.

African Americans and Hispanic Americans are more likely to develop high blood pressure than Caucasians. Studies find that having “Type A” qualities—being very driven, being a perfectionist who doesn’t cope well with stress or know how to relax and having a quick temper—increases the risk of hypertension in men and may increase the risk for women.

Other risk factors for hypertension include:

  • Increasing age
  • Salt sensitivity
  • Obesity
  • Heavy alcohol consumption, defined as more than two drinks a day for men and more than one drink a day for women.
  • Use of oral contraceptives
  • An inactive lifestyle
  • Regular smoking or use of smokeless-tobacco, like snuff or chewing tobacco
  • High uric acid levels (anything over 7 mg/ml of blood)

Unfortunately, there is no proven method of preventing preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension and no tests to diagnose or predict these conditions. The only way to ensure a safe pregnancy is with regular visits to your health care professional for checks of the level of protein in your urine and your blood pressure.

You also ought to do everything you’ll on your own to stop pregnancy-induced high pressure, including regular physical activity and limiting salt intake.

Treatment

There square measure many drug categories to decide on from once choosing a high pressure medication, including hundreds of single medications and combinations. Generally, all will lower your pressure, but often people respond differently to each drug.

You will probably have to try a few of them before finding the one that works the best for you with the fewest side effects.

The drug classes are:

  • Diuretics. Diuretics, that free the body of excess fluids and salt, are the most frequently used drugs to treat high blood pressure. However, in giant doses, some diuretics may deplete the body of potassium, which can lead to irregular heartbeat and reduce your glucose tolerance, which can cause diabetes. There are, however, potassium-sparing diuretics that don’t cause this problem.Overall, diuretics are inexpensive and, in small doses, boost the effectiveness of many other antihypertensive drugs. National guidelines recommend that diuretics alone should be the first agent of choice provided you don’t have any other conditions that prohibit their use. Some commonly prescribed drugs in this class include amiloride (Midamar), bumetanide (Bumex), chlorthalidone (Hygroton), chlorothiazide (Diuril), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Esidrix, Hydrodiuril) and indapamide (Lozol).
  • Beta-blockers. These drugs reduce your heart rate and blood pressure and therefore your heart’s output of blood. You should not get on one in every of these medicine if you have already got a coffee pulse rate, an airway disease such as asthma or peripheral vascular disease.Beta blockers can also mask hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, so you should use with caution if you have diabetes and take insulin or sulfonylurea drugs.Common side effects include fatigue, breathlessness, depression and cold hands and feet. Other, milder side effects can include sleep problems and numbness or tingling of the toes, fingers or scalp. On the plus side, beta blockers can reduce your risk for second heart attack, irregular heartbeat, angina and migraines. Some commonly prescribed drugs in this class include atenolol (Tenormin), betaxolol (Kerlone), bisoprolol (Zebeta), carteolol (Cartrol), acebutolol (Sectral), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL), nadolol (Corgard), propranolol (Inderal), sotolol (Betapace) and timolol (Blocadren).
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors).These drugs reduce your heart rate and blood pressure and therefore your heart’s output of blood. You should not get on one in every of these medicine if you have already got a coffee pulse rate, an airway disease such as asthma or peripheral vascular disease.Beta blockers can also mask hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, so you should use with caution if you have diabetes and take insulin or sulfonylurea drugs.Common side effects include fatigue, breathlessness, depression and cold hands and feet. Other, milder side effects can include sleep problems and numbness or tingling of the toes, fingers or scalp. On the plus side, beta blockers can reduce your risk for second heart attack, irregular heartbeat, angina and migraines. Some commonly prescribed drugs in this class include atenolol (Tenormin), betaxolol (Kerlone), bisoprolol (Zebeta), carteolol (Cartrol), acebutolol (Sectral), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL), nadolol (Corgard), propranolol (Inderal), sotolol (Betapace) and timolol (Blocadren).
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers. Angiotensin II receptor blockers work similarly to ACE inhibitors to block the hormone angiotensin II, which normally causes blood vessels to narrow. As a result, the blood vessels relax and become wider, inflicting pressure to travel down. They’re more effective if you also take a diuretic. These drugs do not cause any cough like ACE inhibitors. Some commonly prescribed drugs in this class are candesartan (Atacand), eprosartan (Teveten), irbesarten (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), telmisartan (Micardis) and valsartan (Diovan).
  • Calcium channel blockers (calcium antagonists). Calcium channel blockers relax artery muscles and dilate coronary arteries and other arteries by blocking the transport of calcium into these structures, thus lowering blood pressure. There are two classes of calcium blockers: the dihydropyridines and the non-dihydropyridines:
    • Non-dihydropyridines. These drugs help reduce chest pain (angina) and heart-rhythm irregularities such as atrial fibrillation. Some unremarkably prescription drugs during this category embody calcium blocker (Isoptin, Verelan, Calan) and calcium blocker (Cardizem).
    • Dihydropyridines.these drugs are also effective in treating patients with angina. They are sometimes used in treating systolic hypertension in elderly patients. Dihydropyridines generally have a weaker effect on the heart and some, such as amlodipine, take longer to work. But once they start working, they work well throughout the day, making them a good “once-a-day” drug. Some commonly prescribed drugs in this class include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia and others), nicardipine (Cardene), isradipine (DynaCirc), amlodipine (Norvasc) and felodipine (Plendil).One dihydropyridine, fast-acting nifedipine, may increase your risk of heart failure once used for acute hypertension; so, nifedipine should only be used in the treatment of chronic high blood pressure. It is unclear whether other calcium channel blockers share this risk, so discuss this and other potential risks with your health care professional if you receive a prescription for a Ca channel blocker.Dihydropyridines also may cause ankle swelling, rapid heartbeat and headaches and may make you flush.
  • Alpha-blockers. These drugs work by relaxing certain muscles to help small vessels remain open. Alpha blockers work by stopping the hormone norepinephrine from constricting small arteries and veins, which improves blood flow and lowers blood pressure. Alpha blockers may increase your heart rate and can cause you to retain fluid, so they may be combined with diuretics or beta blockers. Other side effects include a drastic drop in blood pressure when you stand up—often seen after only one dose—and headache. However, some studies suggest alpha blockers have added benefits if you have high blood cholesterol levels or glucose intolerance. Some commonly prescribed drugs in this class include doxazosin (Cardura), prazosin (Minipress) and terazosin (Hytrin).
  • Alpha-beta blockers. Alpha-beta blockers reduce nerve impulses to blood vessels, thus decreasing vessel constriction, and they slow the heartbeat to reduce the amount of blood that must be pumped through the vessels. Some commonly prescribed alpha-beta blockers include caredilol (Coreg) and labetolol hydrochloride (Normodyne). Potential side effects of alpha-beta blockers include fatigue, decreased sex drive, anxiety and insomnia. More serious side effects include difficulty breathing, depression, feeling faint and swelling of the lips, tongue, throat or face.
  • Vasodilators. Vasodilators work to relax the muscles in the walls of the blood vessels, which helps the vessels widen. Some commonly prescribed vasodilators include hydralazine hydrochloride (Apresoline) and minoxidil (Loniten). More serious potential side effects of vasodilators include difficulty breathing; swelling in your face, throat, lips, tongue, feet or hands; and joint pain. Less serious side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and anxiety.
  • Central-acting agents (or central agonists).These medications work by preventing your brain from telling your systema nervosum to extend your pulse rate and slim blood vessels. Some unremarkably prescription drugs during this category embody alpha antihypertensive drug (Aldomet), clonidine hydrochloride (Catapres), guanabenz acetate (Wytensin) and guanfacine hydrochloride (Tenex). Potential side effects of central agonists include dizziness, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting and sleep problems. More serious facet effects embody allergy, fast, pounding heart rate and confusion.
  • Direct renin inhibitors. These medications work by preventing your brain from telling your systema nervosum to extend your pulse rate and slim blood vessels. Some unremarkably prescription drugs during this category embody alpha antihypertensive drug (Aldomet), clonidine hydrochloride (Catapres), guanabenz acetate (Wytensin) and guanfacine hydrochloride (Tenex). Potential side effects of central agonists include dizziness, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting and sleep problems. More serious facet effects embody allergy, fast, pounding heart rate and confusion.

Prevention

Because we don’t know the cause of most cases of high blood pressure, it’s hard to say how to prevent it. However, diet and lifestyle changes can be key. You should consider these tips:

  • Increase the amount of exercise you get. Regular aerobic physical activity will enhance weight loss and scale back the chance for upset. You can reduce your blood pressure with moderately intense physical activity, such as a 30- to 60-minute brisk walk most days. If you have got internal organ or alternative serious health problems, you must have a radical medical analysis, and maybe have a internal organ check, before beginning any exercise program.
  • Lose weight. Losing simply ten pounds will facilitate lower your force per unit area. Some weighty individuals even have apnea, during which they stop respiratory dozens or many time an evening, snore loudly and suffer from daytime somnolence. Sleep apnea is linked with high blood pressure.
  • Reduce alcohol consumption. Most men with high blood pressure shouldn’t drink more than two drinks per day, and women shouldn’t have more than one alcoholic drink per day. A drink is adequate twelve ounces of brew, 5 ounces of wine or one and a [*fr1] ounces of 80-proof liquor.
  • Reduce stress. When you relax, your heart rate slows, which reduces the amount of oxygen your body needs, reducing your pressure.
  • Quit smoking. Even over lowering your force per unit area in and of itself, it’ll scale back your overall upset risk over the other single move.
  • Reduce your sodium intake. Salt can cause fluid retention so don’t add salt to foods. Limit sodium intake to no more than 2,300 mg per day—the amount contained in one teaspoon of salt. Steer clear of processed foods (sauces, mixes and “instant” products such as flavored rice, cereals and pasta). A lower sodium level of 1,500 milligrams per day is recommended for people age 51 and older and anyone who is African American or who has high blood pressure, diabetes or chronic kidney disease. Get in the habit of checking labels for sodium content. If one portion has over three hundred mg, opt for a lower-salt complete. Eat a lot of vegetables that ar recent, frozen without sauce or canned with no salt. Salt substitutes may work for you, but check with your health care professional because they can be harmful if you have certain medical problems..
  • Increase dietary potassium. An analysis of many studies indicates that metal will scale back force per unit area. Bananas ar naturally high in metal, and the mineral can also be purchased in supplement form. For individuals with force per unit area values on top of best levels, NHBPEP recommends increasing your dietary potassium intake to more than 3,500 mg per day—especially important if you have a high sodium intake. Increasing potassium intake is not recommend for patients with kidney disease. Ask you health care skilled before increasing your metal intake.
    Eat a healthy diet. Aim for a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and low in saturated and total fat.
  • Eat a healthy diet. Aim for a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and low in saturated and total fat.

You can make all of your lifestyle changes at the same time. Studies find the best results come from adopting the DASH diet, which is rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products.

Fish oil (omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids) and Ca supplements lower force per unit area solely slightly in those with high blood pressure. Additionally, herbal and botanical supplements, which get very little scrutiny from the FDA, have not been proven to safely lower blood pressure and may, in fact, dangerously interact with some medications.

Finally, if you have got high force per unit area, be sure to inform your health care professional about all medicines you are taking, including over-the-counter drugs. It is particularly important that you mention drugs such as steroids; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen; nasal decongestants and other cold remedies; appetite suppressants; cyclosporine; erythropoietin; antidepressants; and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.

You should watch out once selecting over-the-counter medicine for colds. Many cold remedies contain decongestants that may raise your blood pressure. These medicines can even interfere together with your force per unit area drug’s effectiveness. Check with your health care skilled before taking any medicinal drug if you have got high force per unit area.

Facts to Know

  1. About 76.4 million Americans have high blood pressure. It is a contributing factor in an estimated 326,000 deaths per year.
  2. More men than women have hypertension until women reach menopause, when a woman’s risk becomes greater than a man’s.
  3. About half of the 76.4 million Americans with high blood pressure are women, with the incidence becoming greater in women as they get older. About thirty % of ladies have high pressure level, and the risk is higher in older women and African American women.
  4. Your blood pressure consists of two numbers—the systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure. The higher number, the systolic pressure, represents the pressure while the heart is beating. The lower number, the diastolic pressure, represents the pressure when the heart is resting between beats.
  5. Blood pressure can fluctuate with eating, sleeping and changes in posture, but a normal blood pressure reading should be equal to or less than 119 mm Hg systolic and/or 79 mm Hg diastolic. Blood pressure between 120–139/80–89 is considered prehypertension and anything above this level (140/90) is considered hypertension or high blood pressure.
  6. If you have prehypertension, you are more likely to develop hypertension in the future and have increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other conditions related to hypertension. In fact, your risk of stroke triples if you have prehypertension.
  7. You may also have hypertension if either your systolic or your diastolic pressure is greater than or equal to 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively. That is, you can have isolated systolic or diastolic hypertension. Isolated pulsation high blood pressure is that the most typical variety of high pressure level in older Americans. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) estimates that 65 percent of people with hypertension over age 60 have ISH.
  8. Dietary and style changes might assist you management high pressure level. If you have mild hypertension, you may be able to lower your blood pressure by reducing the amount of sodium in your diet and cutting back on alcohol consumption. If you are overweight, losing weight will help, as will physical activity.
  9. Many people suppose high pressure level is that the results of style factors, such as stress, lack of exercise, drinking or smoking, but the cause of approximately 90 percent to 95 percent of all hypertension cases can’t be determined.
  10. There is no cure for hypertension, but it is easily detected and usually controllable.
  11. Many people suppose high pressure level is that the results of style factors, such as stress, lack of exercise, drinking or smoking, but the cause of approximately 90 percent to 95 percent of all hypertension cases can’t be determined.
  12. Taking birth control pills has been linked with high blood pressure in women. The combination of birth control pills and smoking may be particularly dangerous. Ask your health care professional to take your blood pressure before you start taking the pill and have it checked every six months or so after you start taking it.
  13. There ar many drug classes—and many individual and combination medications—to choose between once treating high pressure level. Generally, all can lower your blood pressure, but people often respond very differently to each drug, so you will probably have to try a few of them before finding the one that works best for you.
  14. Taking birth control pills has been linked with high blood pressure in women. The combination of birth control pills and smoking may be particularly dangerous. Ask your health care professional to take your blood pressure before you start taking the pill and have it checked every six months or so after you start taking it.
  15. If you already have high blood pressure and you get pregnant, your pregnancy could make the condition more severe, especially in the last three months. If it goes untreated, high blood pressure in pregnancy can be dangerous to both mother and baby. Therefore, health care professionals typically closely monitor pressure level throughout maternity.

Key Q&A

  1. What exactly is hypertension?Hypertension is also called high blood pressure. Blood pressure is that the pressure within your arteries that harmlessly pushes the blood to your body’s organs and muscles so that they will receive the gas and nutrients they have. Blood pressure is variable-it rises and falls throughout the day. When pressure level stays elevated over time, it’s referred to as high pressure level or cardiovascular disease. A blood pressure reading at or above 140 systolic or 90 diastolic (presented 140/90 mm Hg) is considered hypertensiv
  2. What causes hypertension?No one knows for sure, although a number of factors are thought to contribute to it, such as family history. If you have two immediate family members who developed high blood pressure before age 60, you have two times the risk, and your risk goes up even further with each extra immediate loved one with high pressure level you’ve got. Other risk factors embrace increasing age, salt sensitivity, obesity, heavy alcohol consumption, use of oral contraceptives, an inactive lifestyle, regular smoking or use of smokeless-tobacco (like snuff or chewing tobacco) and high uric acid levels
  3. Are there different types of hypertension?Yes, there square measure 2 styles of cardiovascular disease: Primary hypertension and high blood pressure. Primary cardiovascular disease, the foremost common sort, is also called essential hypertension. There is no known cause. About 5 percent to 10 percent of people with high blood pressure have it as a result of another condition or problem, such as such as kidney disease, or the use of certain medications, such as birth control pills. This is secondary hypertension.
  4. Can hypertension lead to other serious medical problems?Yes! All stages of hypertension are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. Even slightly elevated pressure level levels will double your risk for coronary cardiovascular disease. Consistent high blood pressure also increases your risk for congestive heart failure and can lead to other problems such as atherosclerosis, eye damage, heart enlargement or failure and kidney damage and failure.
  5. Who develops high blood pressure?African Americans and Hispanic Americans are more likely to develop high blood pressure than Caucasians. More men than girls have cardiovascular disease till girls reach biological time, when a woman’s risk surpasses a man’s.
  6. How often should I have my blood pressure checked?You should have your blood pressure checked whenever you see a health care professional-but every two years at the least.
  7. What can I do to prevent hypertension?Diet and lifestyle changes are key. You should increase your exercise, maintain a healthy weight and reduce alcohol consumption. Most men shouldn’t drink more than two drinks per day and women shouldn’t drink more than one drink per day. (One drink is outlined as twelve ounces of brew, five ounces of wine or an ounce and a half of 80-proof liquor). You should also reduce your stress levels and lower your sodium intake, as well as follow a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and low in saturated and total fat.
  8. How is hypertension treated?Your health care skilled has many drug categories from that to settle on once choosing a cardiovascular disease drug for you. Generally, all will lower your pressure level, however usually folks respond terribly otherwise to every drug. You will probably have to try out a few of them before finding the one that works the best for you, with the least amount of side effects.