Know about Contraception

Overview

Choosing a contraception technique is one in every of the foremost personal health care choices a girl makes. In nearly four decades of childbearing years, your need for birth control will most likely change many times. But at each life stage, you can make informed decisions by learning about all your contraceptive options and selecting one or more that best fits your reproductive health needs.

Many women don’t seem to be adequately shielded from Associate in Nursing unwanted physiological state by their selection of contraception technique. In fact, according to the Guttmacher Institute, about one-half of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned.

There are many reasons for failure of family planning, together with inappropriate use (for example, not inserting a diaphragm the correct manner or not exploitation enough spermicide); failure to continue use of the method (for example, forgetting to take your birth control pills or not using a condom every time you have sex); and failure of the contraceptive method itself.

Of the ladies WHO expertise unplanned pregnancies annually within the us, forty one % use contraception, however these ladies use contraception inconsistently. Of women who use birth control consistently, only 5 percent become pregnant per year. This illustrates the importance of consistent birth control use.

Myths or personal concerns about the risks and safety of certain birth control options also contribute to incorrect use of birth control. Women might use a selected technique solely often, as an example, thinking that less frequent use is safer than continuous use. Or they may stop using a particular method because of bothersome side effects.

Age-related changes will lead ladies to believe they now not got to use family planning. For example, ladies nearing climacteric might erroneously suppose they’re now not fertile as a result of their emission cycles are not any longer regular. However, consistent with the yank Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), regarding seventy five % of pregnancies in ladies over forty ar unmotivated. Although climacteric will mark the top of a woman’s childbearing years, you have not gone through menopause until 12 consecutive months without a period. You can get pregnant even if your periods are irregular.

Today, American women have more contraceptive options to choose from than ever before. So you should be able to find one that works well for you and fits your lifestyle.

Other things to consider before making a contraception choice:

  • Find out how much the contraceptive costs. Most oral contraceptives and some other contraceptives are now free under the Affordable Care Act, but check with your insurance provider to be sure.
  • Ask yourself if you can realistically use this method. Are you sure you understand how to use it properly? Will this method embarrass you or your partner? Does it fit with your lifestyle?
  • Find out how to use the method correctly and what to do if you forget to use it occasionally.
  • Ask your health care professional about side effects. What should you expect? What should you do about them if they occur, and when should you expect them to stop?
  • Will this method cause any unacceptable weight gain?

You can probably think of many more questions about birth control. Learn as much as you can about your options and make an informed decision about which method is the best and safest for you. Consider your needs and discuss them with your health care professional during your next medical appointment.

To get you started, here is some basic information about contraceptive options approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and resources you can use for more in-depth research.

For a comparison of however effective every variety of family planning is for preventing physiological state, please see the chart, “Contraceptive Failure Rates” at the end of this entry.

Contraceptive Options

The contraceptive options women may choose are:

  • Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives
  • Hormonal contraceptive patches
  • Hormonal contraceptive vaginal rings
  • Long-acting hormonal methods, such as shots and implants
  • Intrauterine devices (IUDs)
  • Barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, contraceptive sponges and cervical caps
  • Spermicides
  • Natural family planning (also called fertility awareness or the “rhythm” method)
  • Permanent contraception (sterilization)
  • Emergency contraception

Remember that most methods of birth control do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as HIV, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, provide the best available means of reducing the risk of many STDs, according to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If you are not in an exclusive relationship with someone who has been tested for STDs, you should use condoms along with any other form of birth control.

Birth Control Pills

There are three types of BCPs on the market today: the combination pill, the mini-pilland the emergency contraceptive pill. The combination pill is the most widely prescribed. It contains two hormones: estrogen and progestin. It works by suppressingovulation each month.
Learn more: Birth Control Pills

Long-Acting Hormonal Methods
Several options are available to women who want long-term, but not permanent, protection against pregnancy, including intrauterine devices, hormonal patches and vaginal rings. These options rely on estrogen-progestin or progestin alone to prevent ovulation.
Learn more: Long-Acting Hormonal Methods

Barrier Methods
Barrier methods are less effective than hormonal methods but cause fewer side effects and are associated with less risk. They include condoms, diaphragms, the contraceptive sponge and cervical caps
Learn more: Barrier Methods

Natural Family Planning
A calendar, body temperature and physical symptoms, such as the consistency of cervical mucus, are used to determine when ovulation is likely, and you avoid intercourse during this time.
Learn More: Natural Family Planning

Permanent Contraception
Female sterilization closes a woman’s fallopian tubes by blocking, tying or cutting them so an egg cannot travel to the uterus.

Birth Control Pills (BCPs)

There square measure 3 varieties of contraception pills on the market today: the mixture pill, the mini-pill and therefore the emergency anovulant.

Combination Pill

The combination pill is the most widely prescribed. It contains two hormones: estrogen and progestin. It works by suppressing ovulation each month, thinning the uterine lining and changing the consistency of the mucus in a woman’s cervix, making it harder for sperm to move into contact with an egg.

Low-dose combination birth control pills contain 10 to 50 mcg of estrogen, a lower dose (one-fourth or less) than the birth control pills marketed 30 to 50 years ago. They come in different formulations. Some need taking a relentless dose of each medications for twenty one days followed by one week of placebo tablets. Others vary the dose of steroid and/or steroid that a lady gets throughout her cycle (multiphasic) or add extra days (tablets) of steroid at the top of the 21- or 24-day cycle.

The FDA also has approved continuous-use birth control pills that contain ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel. Brand names embrace Lybrel, Alesse, Lessina, Nordette and others. It is a monophasic pill (containing constant levels of steroid and steroid throughout the complete pill-taking schedule) that comes during a 28- or 21-day pack and is meant to be taken incessantly, with no break between pill packets. That means you won’t have a period. You may have some recognizing or breakthrough haemorrhage, particularly when you first start using continuous birth control pills. But most women will have no bleeding (or hardly any) by the end of a year.

Seasonale may be a 91-day anovulatory drug regime additionally designed to cut back the amount of months you have got a cycle. Tablets containing steroid and steroid square measure taken for twelve weeks (84 days), followed by one week of placebo tablets. Therefore, the amount of expected discharge periods is reduced from once a month to regarding once each 3 months, or four times a year. Seasonique is that the same as Seasonale except with Seasonale, girls take inactive pills throughout their four yearly periods and with Seasonique, they take a low dose of estrogen during their periods. Recently, Lo-Seasonique was approved by the FDA as well. It is similar to Seasonique but with lower doses of hormones.

If and when you decide to get pregnant and stop taking birth control pills, you may get pregnant immediately—there are no long-term effects on your fertility from birth control pills.

Benefits. Birth control pills are now also prescribed by health care professionals because of their long- and short-term health benefits for women. Birth control pills can help:

  • Regulate, shorten or eliminate a woman’s menstrual cycle
  • Decrease severe cramping and heavy bleeding
  • Reduce anemia
  • Reduce ovarian cancer risk. According to the American Cancer Society, women who have taken birth control pills for five years or more have about half the risk of ovarian cancer compared to women who have never taken the pill.
  • May reduce colorectal cancer risk.
  • Reduce the development of ovarian cysts
  • Decrease benign breast disease
  • Provide reliable birth control without affecting future ability to become pregnant
  • Reduce the severity and incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)—infection primarily of the fallopian tubes and/or the female reproductive tract
  • Protect against ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus, in the fallopian tubes)
  • Reduce the risk of uterine (endometrial) cancer. Studies find that oral contraceptives protect against this disease by providing the progestins needed to oppose the stimulation of the uterine lining caused by estrogen. The risk is lowest in women who have taken the pill for a long time, and it appears to continue for at least 10 years after a woman has stopped taking the pill.
  • Minimize perimenopausal symptoms, such as irregular menstrual bleeding
  • Reduce acne
  • Treat the emotional and physical symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a severe form of PMS. Two combination oral contraceptives—called Yaz and Beyaz—have been approved by the FDA for use as an oral contraceptive and as a treatment for the emotional and physical symptoms of PMDD. Both Yaz and Beyaz contain the progestin drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol, a form of estrogen. Beyaz also contains folic acid.

Risks. Women with certain health conditions may not be able to use birth control pills. These include:

  • Heart disease or stroke
  • Liver disease
  • Blood clots in the deep veins or lung (risk may vary by formulation so check with your provider)
  • Breast cancer
  • Severe or uncontrolled diabetes. The estrogen in birth control pills may increase glucose levels and decrease the body’s insulin response, while the progestin in the pills may encourage overproduction of insulin. Use of birth control pills by diabetic women should be limited to those who do not smoke, are younger than 35 and are otherwise healthy with no evidence of persistent high blood pressure, kidney disease, vision problems or other vascular disease.
  • Smokers 35 or older. Women age 35 or older who smoke and take birth control pills have a significantly higher risk of ischemic stroke.
  • Certain types of migraine headaches. Women who take birth control pills and have a history of migraines have an increased risk of stroke compared to nonusers with a history of migraine. Your risk is greatest if you have migraines with “aura”—blurred vision, temporary loss of vision or seeing flashing lights or zigzag lines. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has concluded that women with migraines with aura should not take birth control pills. For women over age 35 who get migraines without aura, the risks of oral contraceptive use usually outweigh the benefits. For women under 35, ACOG gynecologists and the WHO state that combined birth control pills may be considered for women with migraines only if they do not experience aura, do not smoke and are otherwise healthy.
  • Severe hypertension. Birth control pill users with a history of high blood pressure faced a substantially higher relative risk of ischemic stroke (blood clot in the brain) than nonusers with no such history. Oral contraceptives have been associated with a small, but significant increase in ischemic stroke risk in many, but not all, studies. This was a particular concern with early birth control pills that contained higher doses of estrogen, but newer pills containing less estrogen are associated with a lower risk of stroke than high-dose pills. In otherwise healthy young women (nonsmokers without persistent high blood pressure), the risk is low.

Smoking cigarettes whereas taking contraception pills dramatically will increase risks of attack and stroke for ladies over age thirty five. Smoking is way a lot of dangerous to a woman’s health than taking contraception pills, but the combination of oral contraceptive pill use and smoking has a greater effect on heart attack and stroke risk than the easy addition of the 2 factors.

Some girls worry that contraception pills could increase their risk for cancer, particularly breast cancer. Research has shown women using birth control pills have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer than women who never used them. Newer low-estrogen contraception pills don’t carry the chance of accrued carcinoma that higher-dose steroid pills did. An August twenty14 study printed in Cancer analysis that checked out carcinoma risk and contraception pill use in girls ages 20 to forty nine found carcinoma risk was higher in girls UN agency had antecedently taken high-dose steroid contraception pills, but not in women who had taken low-dose estrogen pills.

Discuss the risks and benefits of birth control pills with your health care professional.

There is some proof that semipermanent use of contraception pills could increase the chance of cancer of the cervix (the slender, lower portion of the uterus). There is additionally some proof that contraception pills could increase the chance of sure benign (noncancerous) liver tumors.

Side effects and warnings. Nausea, breast tenderness and bleeding are the most common side effects of all birth control pills. Most side effects decrease or disappear after three months of continuous use. Switching to another pill formulation can also relieve side effects.

A serious issue often overlooked by both health care professionals and women is that interactions with other medications can reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills. Medications known to interact with birth control pills are rifampin (an antibiotic) and some anticonvulsants. If {you take|you’re taking|you square measure taking} these medicine often however are still inquisitive about victimisation the pill as your contraception technique, speak along with your health care skilled.

“Mini-Pill”

A second birth control pill option is referred to as the “mini-pill.” One pill, which contains only progestin, is taken every day. These pills work by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg. They additionally keep the female internal reproductive organ lining from thickening, which prevents a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus. However, with progestin-only contraception pills, ovulation isn’t consistently suppressed, so the actions on cervical mucus and the endometrium are the critical factors. They may not be as effective as combined contraception pills. Progestin-only pills must be taken at exactly the same time, every day.

However, the progestin-only pill is often an option if you want to use oral contraception but can’t take estrogen or have a history of or increased risk of estrogen-related blood clots. If you are breastfeeding or experience uncomfortable side effects from estrogen, such as headaches, this could be the best option for you.

Protection against ectopic pregnancy is not as strong with the mini-pill as it is with combination pills. The main facet result from mini-pills is emission irregularity; could|you’ll|you will} not have any injury for months otherwise you may have some recognizing between periods. As with combined birth control pills, the mini-pill does not protect you from sexually transmitted diseases, so condoms are necessary if you or your partner is at risk.

Emergency Contraception

This type of contraception is used after unprotected intercourse or failure of a barrier method. Emergency contraceptive pills contain identical hormones as contraception pills. In fact, some birth control pills can be used as emergency contraception with a health care professional’s guidance. Emergency contraceptive pills should not be used for routine birth control.

Commonly known as “the morning when pill,” there square measure many FDA-approved emergency contraceptive method pills within the United States: set up B ballroom dance, Next Choice and generic levonorgestrel tablets, all of which contain the sex hormone levonorgestrel, and ulipristal acetate tablets, sold under the brand name “ella.”

ella will stop physiological state once taken orally among 5 days (120 hours) when unprotected sex. It is a progestogen agonist/antagonist whose seemingly main result is to inhibit or delay biological process. ella cuts the possibilities of changing into pregnant by regarding simple fraction for a minimum of one hundred twenty hours when unprotected sex, studies have shown.

Plan B ballroom dance ought to be taken among seventy two hours of unprotected sex. Recent analysis shows that the levonorgestrel pills could also be effective up to one hundred twenty hours when unprotected sex however square measure simpler the earlier they’re taken. Next Choice and generic levonorgestrel tablets works similarly to Plan B One-Step, but consists of a two-dose regimen, with the first dose taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex and the second 12 hours later. Newer studies indicate that each pills could also be taken along as shortly as potential when unprotected sex.

You can get the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills over the counter while not a prescription. You must kindle them at the pharmacy counter. ella is out there solely by prescription, however girls might keep a offer reception.

For info on emergency birth prevention, visit www.not-2-late.com or call 1-888-NOT-2-LATE or 1-800-230-PLAN to locate a health care professional who can help you. The website and hotlines additionally give info on that pharmacies sell emergency contraceptives as a result of not all pharmacies carry them.

Side effects and warnings. Emergency contraceptive pills mustn’t be used often as contraception as a result of they will disrupt your cycle. They are additionally not one hundred pc effective and may cause facet effects like nausea and reflex, headaches, breast tenderness, dizziness and bloating. Medication may be prescribed with emergency contraceptive pills to minimize nausea and vomiting. Emergency contraceptive pills that contain solely sex hormone cause fewer facet effects.

Because emergency contraceptive pills are intended for use only as their name implies—during an emergency when other contraceptives failed or were not used—women who might otherwise not be able to take contraception pills on a daily basis could also be ready to use emergency contraceptive pills. Discuss your options with a health care professional.

And if you waited longer than seventy two hours when unprotected sex, you have another option. An IUD can be inserted by a health care professional up to 120 hours (five days) after unprotected sex and should prevent a fertilized egg from implanting in most cases. The same precautions apply for victimization associate degree prophylactic device as associate degree emergency contraceptive as for selecting it as a contraception method: If you’re in danger for sexually transmitted diseases (if you have multiple sexual partners) or if you have a recent history of pelvic inflammatory disease, you aren’t a good candidate for this type of emergency contraception.

Vaginal Contraceptive Ring

One of the most recent contraceptives on the market, NuvaRing, is available by prescription only and consists of a soft, flexible, transparent ring that measures about 2 inches in diameter. It contains a mix of oestrogen and sex hormone hormones (ethinyl oestrogen and levonorgestrel). It is inserted into the epithelial duct sort of a tampon, where the hormones are slowly released on a continual basis. You need to insert a replacement ring every month for continuous contraceptive method. You can insert the ring yourself into your epithelial duct, wherever it ought to stay for 3 weeks. Then you remove the ring for one week, during which time you have your period.

Benefits. NuvaRing only needs to be inserted once a month, making it a convenient form of birth control. And, like oral contraceptives, NuvaRing is highly effective when used according to the labeling. For every 100 women using NuvaRing correctly for an entire year, only one will become pregnant.

Side effects and warnings. Side effects of the NuvaRing may include vaginal discharge, vaginitis and irritation. Like oral contraceptives, NuvaRing may increase the risk of blood clots, heart attack and stroke. Women United Nations agency use NuvaRing ar powerfully suggested to not smoke, because it could increase the danger of heart-related facet effects.

Skin Patch

The contraceptive Ortho Evra is a transdermal (through the skin) patch approved by the FDA in 2001 that contains ethinyl estradiol and the progesterone norelgestromin. The one-and-three-quarter-inch patch is applied to the skin (abdomen, buttocks or upper torso, but not breasts) where it slowly releases hormones for a week. It must be replaced every week. After three weeks (and three new patches) you have one week that is patch-free, during which you get your period.

Benefits. The Ortho Evra patch is 91 percent effective in preventing pregnancy when used correctly. It also removes the problem of having to remember to take a pill every day or insert a device before intercourse.

Side effects and warnings. In clinical trials, the patch was less effective in women weighing more than 198 pounds. Also, some women experienced breast symptoms, headache, a reaction at the application site, nausea and emotional changes. Other risks are similar to those from using birth control pills, including an increased risk of blood clots, heart attack and stroke. Women who use Ortho Evra are strongly advised not to smoke, as it may increase the risk of heart-related side effects.

The Ortho Evra label carries an FDA-required warning that the birth control patch delivers a higher dose of estrogen than the birth control pill and therefore may increase the risk of blood clots and other serious side effects. Women taking or considering the birth control patch should talk to their health care professional about these risks.

 

Barrier Methods

 

Barrier strategies area unit less effective than secretion strategies however cause fewer facet effects and area unit related to less risk. The effectiveness of barrier varieties of birth control will be enlarged once used with preventative.

  • The male condom. The male condom. The contraceptive may be a sheath product of latex or ployurethan that’s placed on the member simply before intercourse to forestall sperm cell from coming into the female internal reproductive organ. Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, provide the best available means of reducing the risk of transmission of many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV and trichomoniasis. Condoms can also cut back the chance of venereal disease, syphilis, ulcer and human papillomavirus infection, but only when the infected areas are covered or protected by the condom, according to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Condoms made of lambskin, however, do not offer such protection because they have microscopic holes that may stop sperm but are large enough to permit viruses to submit to.The bureau approved the feminine contraceptive in 1993. It is a soft, thin, ployurethan sheath with 2 versatile rings, one that contains the closed end of the sheath and is inserted into the vagina. The other ring stays outside the vagina.
  • Spermicides. Spermicides are nonprescription, nonhormonal chemical products containing the active ingredient nonoxynol-9 (N-9). They can be used alone or in combination with other barrier contraceptives. Spermicides are available as foam, cream, gel, suppository and film, and, when used with other barrier contraceptives, are more effective than either method used alone.
  • Diaphragms and cervical caps. These barrier contraceptives need a prescription and initial fitting by a health care skilled. The diaphragm may be a soft rubber dome with a versatile rim that covers the cervix. The cervical cap fits snugly on the surface of the cervix. Both devices block sperm from entering the uterus but should be used along with a spermicide.Both the diaphragm and the cervical cap can be inserted up to six hours before intercourse and should remain in place for six to eight hours after intercourse. You must remove a diaphragm after this period of time but you can leave a cervical cap in place for up to 48 hours.These devices are easy to insert and remove for many girls, although some women can’t use the cervical cap because they have an irregularly shaped cervix. Proper fit of either device is important. If you choose one of these options, see your health care professional once a year to have it replaced. Pregnancy and giving birth will amendment however these devices match. You should additionally rigorously examine your diaphragm or contraceptive before every use to make sure it’s not perforated or torn.Benefits. One advantage of the barrier methodology is availability: Condoms and spermicides will be purchased over the counter (without a prescription).Side effects. Some girls and men expertise sensitivity to sure spermicides or to rubber or latex employed in condoms, diaphragms or cervical caps. Consult with a health care skilled if you develop any symptoms once mistreatment birth control. Symptoms might include:
    • Rash
    • Respiratory distress
    • Swelling
    • Hay fever-type reactions such as itchy, swollen eyes, runny nose and sneezing
    • Asthma-type symptoms such as chest tightness, wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath

    Diaphragm and spermicide use has been associated with an increased risk of urinary tract infections (UTI) and yeast infections. Emptying your bladder immediately after intercourse and removing the diaphragm after six hours may decrease your chances of developing a UTI.

  • The Contraceptive Sponge. The channel sponge (Today), which had been withdrawn from the market, won FDA re-approval in April 2005. The one-gram sponge is on the market over the counter, is 80 to 91 percent effective in preventing pregnancy and contains the spermicide nonoxynol-9. It is more effective in women who haven’t given birth. When moistened with water and placed in the vagina, it releases the spermicide and begins working right away and for the next 24 hours (and it can be used repeatedly within this timeframe). The sponge ought to be left in situ for a minimum of six hours once intercourse. Don’t leave it in place for more than 30 hours.

 

Natural Family Planning

 

Couples mistreatment this methodology determine a woman’s most phase by trailing her cycle. A calendar, body temperature and physical symptoms, such as the consistency of cervical mucus, are used to determine when ovulation is likely, and you avoid intercourse during this time.

Benefits and risks. The most obvious profit to natural birth {prevention|planning} is that no artificial devices or hormones area unit accustomed prevent physiological condition. Little to no cost is involved. But, experts say, while these methods can work, a couple needs to be extremely motivated to use them effectively and accurately to prevent pregnancy.

Permanent Contraception (sterilization)

Permanent birth prevention is that the commonest style of birth prevention overall, and it’s a very common selection for girls age thirty five and older. Female sterilization closes a woman’s fallopian tubes by interference, attachment or cutting them therefore AN egg cannot trip the female internal reproductive organ. There are two primary forms of female sterilization: a fairly new nonsurgical implant system (sold under the brand name Essure), and the traditional tubal ligation procedure (done via laparoscopy or minilaparotomy), often called “getting your tubes tied.”

  • Nonsurgical permanent birth control. Sometimes called fallopian tube occlusion, the nonsurgical permanent contraception procedure can be performed in your doctor’s office with local anesthesia. The Essure system uses specially designed spring-like coils referred to as small inserts. (Essure contains nickel and should not be utilized by girls with a nickel allergic reaction.) throughout the procedure, your doctor uses a special instrument referred to as a hysteroscope to position the insert through your vagina and cervix into the opening of your fallopian tube in your uterus. There is no incision. Within 3 months, the insert causes your body to create a tissue barrier that forestalls sperm cell from reaching the egg. During this three-month amount, you wish to use another style of contraception. After three months, you have to return to your doctor’s office for a special x-ray to make sure your tubes are completely blocked. In clinical studies, most girls according very little to no pain and were ready to come back to their traditional activities in a very day or 2.
  • Tubal ligation. With this type of sterilization procedure, your fallopian tubes are blocked with a ring or burned or clipped shut. This procedure is typically performed under general anesthesia in a hospital. It can be done via a laparoscopy or a minilaparotomy.
    • LaparoscopyThe MD makes atiny low incision through the abdomen and inserts a special instrument referred to as an endoscope to look at the girdle region and tubes. He or she then closes the tubes using clips, tubal rings or electrocoagulation (using an electric current to cauterize and destroy a portion of the tube). The patient can usually go home the same day and resume intercourse as soon as it’s comfortable. Risks include pain, bleeding, infection and other postsurgical complications, as well as an ectopic, or tubal, pregnancy.
    • Minilaparotomy.During a minilaparotomy, the surgeon makes a small incision (about two inches long) and ties and cuts the tubes without the use of a viewing instrument. In general, minilaparotomy could be a good selection for girls World Health Organization endure sterilization right when birthing. Patients sometimes want a couple of days to recover and may resume intercourse when consulting with their doctors.
  • Vasectomy. Male sterilization is called a vasectomy. This procedure is performed in the doctor’s office. The scrotum is numbed with an anesthetic, so the doctor can make a small incision to access the vas deferens, the tubes through which sperm travels from the testicle to the penis. The doctor then seals, ties or cuts the vas deferens. Following a extirpation, a person continues to ejaculate, but the fluid does not contain sperm. Temporary swelling and pain area unit common facet effects of surgery. A newer approach to this procedure can reduce swelling and bleeding.

Benefits and risks. Sterilization could be a extremely effective thanks to for good stop pregnancy—it’s thought-about quite ninety nine p.c effective, meaning less than one woman in 100 will get pregnant after having a sterilization procedure. However, a extirpation isn’t effective for regarding 3 months; a doctor can perform a sperm cell check to work out once the extirpation are often relied on to forestall gestation. Surgery for feminine sterilization is additional complicated and carries larger risk than surgery to sterilize men, and recovery takes longer. Reversing sterilization in men and ladies is extraordinarily troublesome, however, and often unsuccessful. There is atiny low chance of obtaining pregnant when sterilization; some proof suggests that girls World Health Organization area unit younger after they area unit sterilized have the next risk of obtaining pregnant.

Couples World Health Organization aren’t positive regarding sterilization however need to defer having youngsters for a minimum of 5 to ten years ought to 1st think about employing long contraceptive strategies like IUDs or hormonal shots or implants before choosing sterilization.

 

Facts to Know

  1. Many women don’t get the protection they expect from their contraception strategies as a result of they are doing not use the strategies properly. Nearly 1/2 girls victimisation contraception expertise unplanned pregnancies, even though many methods are nearly 100 percent effective when used properly.
  2. Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are now available in a variety of low-dose options that are safe and effective for most healthy women. Birth control pills embrace combination pills, which contain estrogen and progestin, and a “mini-pill” option that does not contain estrogen.
  3. Oral contraceptives could scale back the danger of gonad and female internal reproductive organ cancers and supply different health advantages like control discharge cycles; one complete of oral contraceptives has been shown to be effective for treating symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome.
  4. When used consistently and correctly, condoms offer the best available means of reducing the risk of infection from the following STDs: gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Condoms may also scale back the danger of venereal disease, syphilis, chancroid and HPV infection, but only when the infected areas are covered or protected by the condom.
  5. Women World Health Organization have medical or spiritual issues regarding artificial contraception strategies will use fertility awareness strategies, sometimes called natural family planning. These methods require that couples be motivated and adhere to a schedule that avoids sex when a woman is ovulating and most likely to be fertile.
  6. According to the Guttmacher Institute, seven in 10 teens have had intercourse by their 19th birthday. A sexually active juvenile World Health Organization does not use birth prevention includes a ninety p.c probability of changing into pregnant among one year. Studies show that teens who talk to their parents about sex, pregnancy, birth control and sexually transmitted diseases are less likely to become sexually active at an early age and more likely to use protection when they do have sex.
  7. Sterilization is the second most popular form of birth control in the United States, right after the pill. It is considered a permanent form of birth control.
  8. It can be helpful to review your contraceptive options as you age to make sure your current birth control method continues to fit your lifestyle and reproductive health needs.

Key Q&A

  1. What do I do if I miss a day of taking my birth control pills?The pills you have to worry most about missing are the ones right before and right after the seven placebo pills in your pack. Known as the pill-free interval, the placebos are designed to be taken the week you have your period to help you stay in the rhythm of taking a pill every day. If you start a new pack late or take longer than seven days “pill free,” you might ovulate and could become pregnant. Read the package insert that came with your pills; it will explain what to do about missed pills. Or call your health care professional. In the meantime, use backup contraception just to be safe. In general, if you miss a pill, take it as soon as you remember and then continue taking one pill each day as prescribed (depending on when you missed your pill, you may take two pills on the same day). If you miss two or more pills in the first week of your pill cycle and you have unprotected intercourse during this week, consider using emergency contraception. If you miss pills in the fourth week of a 28-day pack, those pills are likely placebo if you’re using a 21/7 regimen. However, some of the newer formulations may contain active pills, so read the package insert for instructions.
  2. I’ve heard that I can’t get pregnant while I’m breastfeeding. Does that mean I don’t need a contraceptive?The lactational amenorrhoea methodology (LAM) refers to the natural stop of a woman’s emission amount whereas she is breastfeeding. Ovulation doesn’t occur at this time, so birth control is automatic. LAM is only effective in preventing pregnancy if the mother is breastfeeding exclusively; her baby is less than six months old; and the mother’s periods have not yet returned. If a woman starts to get her period again, it’s a pretty good indication that she’s ovulating and able to get pregnant. But, in general, even supposing breastfeeding will give some contraceptive protection, it is not a completely reliable form of contraception. There square measure many contraception choices that square measure safe for breastfeeding ladies and their babies, so why take chances? Here are your options:
    • The mini-pill is a progestin-only pill that usually has no negative impact on milk production (combination pills can dry up milk) and may even provide a little boost in milk volume. You can start this pill right after delivery under the guidance of your health care professional.
    • Nonhormonal contraception methods such as barrier devices and copper IUDs are preferred in women who are nursing because they don’t contain hormones that could affect milk supply or pass through the milk. If hormonal methods are the only option, progestin-only birth control is preferred in women who are breast-feeding.
    • Barrier ways like condoms and spermicides haven’t any impact on breastfeeding and will be useful in overcoming canal condition caused by breastfeeding (use lubricated condoms). They can be used immediately postpartum. If you wish to use a diaphragm or birth control device, wait till when your sixth postnatal week; diaphragms and cervical caps have to be compelled to be fitted when you utterly heal, and it’s not advisable to use them until you’ve stopped bleeding.
    • You can have an IUD inserted between six and eight weeks postpartum.
  3. I’ve been taking birth control pills for several years. Do I need to give my body a rest and stop taking them for a while?There is no scientific evidence that taking oral contraceptives does any long-term harm to your endocrine system, which regulates hormones.
  4. My partner hates to use condoms because he says they make sex less pleasurable. Is there anything else I can do to protect myself from STDs?You could attempt the feminine contraceptive, which has a looser fit. There are male condoms designed to reinforce pleasure, that square measure sold-out over the counter.You might attempt a couple of things to form contraceptive use additional fun. How regarding unrolling it onto your partner’s member yourself?Condoms sometimes help men maintain an erection; tell your partner you want to use a condom so sex will last longer. If all else fails, refuse to have sex with him if he doesn’t use a condom or find other ways to enjoy each other sexually. (Keep in mind that avoiding penis-vagina contact is that the solely thanks to keep safe from maternity, but other sexual acts, such as oral sex, still put you at risk for some STDs.)
  5. How do I keep a condom from slipping?First, check during sex that the condom is still where it should be. Second, make sure your partner knows to withdraw soon after ejaculation, before the penis gets smaller. And third, while he is withdrawing, he should hold the rim of the condom.
  6. I’ve heard that birth control pills cause cancer, but I’ve also heard they can protect against cancer. Which is true?Newer low-estrogen contraception pills don’t carry the chance of exaggerated carcinoma that higher-dose steroid hormone pills did. An August twenty14 study printed inCancer analysis that checked out carcinoma risk and contraception pill use in ladies ages 20 to forty nine found carcinoma risk was higher in women who had previously taken high-dose estrogen birth control pills, but not in women who had taken low-dose estrogen pills.There is also evidence, however, that use of birth control pills decreases the incidence of uterine, ovarian and possibly colorectal cancer. The longer a woman uses the pill, the more her risk of developing these cancers is reduced. Birth control pills can also shield against developing breast and sex gland cysts. Discuss the risks and benefits of birth control pills with your health care professional.
  7. I’ve had all the children I want, but I’m not ready for sterilization. I’ve been considering the IUD. Is it safe?Yes. The fears close intrauterine devices (IUDs) stem principally from issues with the Dalkon protect, an IUD introduced in the 1970s. The construction of the Dalkon protect exaggerated the chance of microorganism infections, which resulted in pelvic inflammatory disease for many women. Today’s IUDs are constructed differently and are safe and highly effective. IUDs aren’t sensible choices for girls in danger for acquiring sexually transmitted infections, however.
  8. I am 16 years old and would like to use birth control pills. The problem is that I smoke cigarettes. My mom used to smoke and was told she couldn’t use them. Can I?In women younger than 35, the benefits of birth control pills appear to outweigh the risks, even in heavy smokers, unless there is a family history of blood clots. However, smoking puts you in danger for various serious health issues, together with cancer and heart condition, therefore you ought to consult with your health care skilled regarding ways that to assist you kick the habit.